International digital health systems

How to obtain reimbursement for digital health solutions in different countries? Find out about the steps and points of contact of other digital healthcare systems.

Pioneering reimbursement of digital innovation and health applications

  • It is the first country to have implemented a "fast track" for reimbursement of mobile applications (DiGA)
  • The government has introduced a new two-fold digital health policy for the general digitization of healthcare services as well as regulations on secondary health data

Several initiatives to drive the digital transformation of healthcare

  • At the European level, the country is very actively involved in major health information projects 
  • is the platform to facilitate and standardise the registration of health data

Five regions organising and providing care

  • Health databases are at the heart of the national dematerialised and secure platform
  • Several dedicated agencies, including the national investment agency Invest in Danemark, are driving the development of digital health innovation in the country

Health competence is given to the 17 autonomous communities

  • Each autonomous community defines its own health and innovation policy, and together, that of Spain.
  • The private sector plays an important role in the country and plays a key role in health innovation.

A pioneering country in the field of digital health

  • It reconciles e-health and security 
  • The Connected Health Cluster, part of the Tallinn Science Park Tehnopol, is the first innovation centre for digital health.

A close collaboration between the State and the digital health ecosystem

  • Digital health and innovation in Finland is the responsibility of the state, which works closely with the health industries, health institutions and universities. 
  • A system of test beds allows innovators to test their products directly on devices in Finnish hospitals. 
  • Findata is the one-stop guichet for Finnish health and social data.

A universal, centrally regulated and territorially structured health system

  • The financing and delivery of services is provided by a mixed system, comprising a national health service (NHS), employment-based health insurance and private providers. There are seven administrations responsible for coordinating and implementing health policies and actions in their areas of responsibility.
  • Several health clusters and innovation and research centres are available to support entrepreneurs and facilitate market awareness.

A single health insurance fund provides health care coverage for nearly all residents

Universality and equality are the pillars of the Italian health system

  • The Italian health system is highly decentralised thanks to the 125 regional health agencies (ASL) that are responsible for providing a basic range of care to the population. 
  • Each region remains independent in the organisation of its health system and an Essential Level of Assistance (LEA) must always be guaranteed to citizens.  
  • Almost 16 billion euros are invested between 2021 and 2026 for the digitalisation of the health system through the Next Generation Italy plan. 

Lithuania created a centralized eHealth system evolving around the deployment of electronic health records.

  • Almost all patient related data can now be processed electronically (close to 100% of documents), allowing personal health records to be stored in one place - in the eHealth system, reflecting the trend to implement the principle of "one patient, one health record, one healthcare pathways".
  • "Invest Lithuania"  is an Investment Promotion Agency that informs, connects and supports foreign companies in Lithuania 

A country outside the EU but a leader in European health projects

  • 2013: Roll-out of electronic prescriptions.
  • 2018: Integration of the patient medical record into the emergency medicine pathway.
  • 2023: Launch of the new national strategy by the Norwegian Directorate of eHealth. 
  • 2024: Lead of PREVENT NCD.


A competitive public-private healthcare market with a large number of health insurance funds

  • Basic health insurance is mandatory for all citizens. The social insurance system consists of 11 funds. 
  • The Zorgvoorinnoveren (“Care to innovate”) platform helps entrepreneurs navigate the Dutch digital health ecosystem and explore available funding opportunities.  

The Polish eHealth Center and the Innovation Department at the Ministry of Health are developing the digitalization of the health system

  • The role of the Polish eHealth Center is to introduce the obligation for the online medical records and e-prescription
  • The Warsaw Health Innovation Hub supports innovative medical solutions to increase the efficiency of the Polish healthcare system

Innovation is fostered by a dynamic ecosystem of R&D and entrepreneurship

The Health Cluster Portugal, composed of 223 stakeholders representing the Portuguese health ecosystem, contributes to the success of the national health innovation policy.

The Republic of Cyprus

The national e-health authority integrates digital health into a comprehensive national policy and supports its deployment

  • A national eHealth authority has been established in 2019 in Cyprus by law and is responsible to support the development and deployment of digital health innovations. It also has the mission to integrate and align eHealth with other national strategic health policy objectives.
  • eHealth4U is a research project that defines the structure and the content of the national integrated electronic health record (her) system and developing a prototype of it.

Innovation in digital health, a major priority of the government

Innovation in digital health is encouraged by :

  • The creation of the telemedicine competence centre in 2019 by Ministry of Health to provide expertise, evaluation of innovations in the medical environment and other services to support of the development of telemedicine. 
  • The creation AKORD care quality program incentivizes doctors to maximize the benefit of the treatment process by using telehealth. 

A joint national digital health agency for the 4 health systems

  • A wide range of online services offered to citizens such as the ability to communicate with healthcare professionals, book appointments or manage the care pathway.  
  • A digital health agency, NHS Digital, launched in 2013.
  • More than 1 billion e-prescriptions were issued in 2022.
  • 58 DigiTrials (decentralised clinics) clinical trials for innovative treatments and solutions were carried out in 2022.

A public and decentralised health system

Innovation in Sweden is driven by the close collaboration of public sector actors with private and academic actors in 7 regions.


Major investments in the digital transformation of healthcare

  • A national programme to digitise the healthcare system deployed from 2025 to 2034.
  • National roll-out of the electronic patient record.
  • Switzerland has four national languages: German, French, Italian and Romansh.

What the experts say